Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Source

These are the usages most closely tied to our embodied experience in physical space. Prototypically source constructions also express motion, but this is not a requirement for the schema.

  • καὶ ἀπῆρεν ἀπὸ Ἀντιοχίας, ἀπὸ πόλεως βασιλείας αὐτοῦ
    And he departed from Antioch, from the capital of his kingdom (1 Macc 11:49).
  • Σπεῦσον καὶ ἔξελθε ἐν τάχει ἐξ Ἰερουσαλήμ
    Hurry and quickly get out of Jerusalem (Acts 22:18).

Sometimes the entire source-path-goal schema is profiled:

  • τὸ καταπέτασμα τοῦ ναοῦ ἐσχίσθη εἰς δύο ἀπʼ ἄνωθεν ἕως κάτω
    The curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom (Mark 15:38).

Others times, what matters is just the spatial relationship without the motion. Location expressions fall within this domain. They represent a sort of spatial snapshot of an event profiling direction and distance (Tyler & Evans 2003, 134).

  • ἦν δὲ ἡ Βηθανία ἐγγὺς τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων ὡς ἀπὸ σταδίων δεκαπέντε
    So Bethan was near Jerusalem about from fifteen stadia (John 11:18).

Similar to location expressions are separation sources. These specify a physical or metaphoric relation between a trajectory or landmark and emphasize their unrelatedness (or, as in the example below, the necessity of unrelated/separateness). In addition to the distance, these also profile the orientation of the trajectory as maintaining an opposing direction away from the landmark.

  • ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ ἀπέχεσθε
    From all forms of evil abstain (1 Thess 5:22).

Various elements of the source schema can be reconceptualized metaphorically. Thus, separation sources can be extended from the domain of space to the domain of sight.

  • αἱ ὁδοὶ αὐτῶν ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ διὰ παντός, οὐ κρυβήσονται ἀπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ
    Their ways are always before him, they cannot be hidden from his eyes (Sirach 17:15).

Motion can also be metaphorically conceptualized in other ways, such as a change of state, with the initial state and the final state being the source and goal:

  • ποιήσας φραγέλλιον ἐκ σχοινίων
    Making a whip from cords (John 2:15)

We call these material sources following Tyler & Evans (2003). Material sources exist in the fuzzy area between sources, origins, and partitives. The latter two we will look at later.

Another interesting construction are sources with reflexives These involve the specification of a psychological state, thought, or words as trajectors that come from some animate participant. Reflexive sources walk the line between source, origin, and cause/agent expressions.

  • οὐχ ὅτι ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν ἱκανοί ἐσμεν λογίσασθαί τι ὡς ἐξ αὑτῶν
    Not that from ourselves are we competent to claim anything as being from us (2 Cor 3:5).

Categories are fuzzy.


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