Koine-Greek.com style guide

This style guide assumes that the author is using the new Block Editor rather than the classic WYSIWIG editor.

Introductory content

You can add an introductory larger size text to your articles by simply wrapping a paragraph in a p tag with the CSS class of “intro”. Put simply, larger text will usually be read before smaller text.

Blog post content

When writing prose, use the standard paragraph block style. If you have a need for headings, feel free to use those as well for organizing content. Usually, it is preferred to limit individual posts to around 1,500 words and certainly no longer than 2,000. If there is a need for more than that, please consider a multi-part article. This has a number of advantages. For one, short pieces are more likely to be read. Additionally, multi-part series result in more total page views for all parts of the series.

Avoid impersonal constructions. Content is more engaging, especially online, when it is in first person. This does not mean: “Avoid the Passive voice.” Instead, write with from the position of the author engaged with their audience. Keep in mind basic information flow. If the passive voice is necessary for keeping your topic and focus in the right order for clarity, use it. Passive constructions generally sound better if they already have an established/activated topic in the subject position. Thus, if you are beginning an entirely new paragraph or section, the passive construction should be avoided as a first sentence. There are more natural presentation constructions.

Fundamentally: make sure that you clearly move from known or given information to the new information you are introducing the audience to, both at a sentence and paragraph level.


Creating hyperlinked, page-internal footnotes is not an impossible task. However, in WordPress’ writing and editing environment, it is not simple or convenient. For this reason, and because this is the standard format in linguistics, we use author-date citations, following the Linguistics Unified Style Sheet. These may take a few different forms. If you are merely paraphrasing content, you may refer to the author and then put the date in parentheses immediately after, such as: Langacker (1991) argues that our experience of spatial relations form a foundation for many structural elements of syntax. Alternatively, you may place the reference at the end with both author and the date at the end: Our experience of spatial relations form the foundation for many structural element of syntax (Langacker 1991).

Do not place a comma between the author and the publication date. Include a page reference if the citation is sufficiently specific. Separate the page number from the author and date with a comma.

Despite their lack of tactile satisfaction compared to print material, websites do provide the additional advantage of being able to create richly linked content. If at all possible, it is highly beneficial to the reader for the (AUTHOR DATE) citations to be linked, whether to a pdf of an article available online, the more accessible the better. This could be Academia.edu, Amazon.com, Google Books, Archive.org, or even a scholar/researcher’s personal or university website. The intent is to be as useful as possible. An additional benefit to this approach is that it overcomes a common complaint about inline citation styles, since hyperlinks provide direct access the cited source. At the same time, we want to keep people on the site as much as possible. In order to do that, make sure that links open up in a new tab/window.†


“Contentful” footnotes are generally not preferred, particularly since the normal method of in-page hyperlinking to the footer of the page is convoluted to create and provides unnecessary effort for the reader. Still they are not disallowed and we recognize they serve a function.* When such a case arises, we have a preferred method for footnotes.** Use an asterisk rather than a superscript number and then provide the footnote in small text immediately after the end of the paragraph. This approach makes it possible to keep footnoted context readily accessible without excessive clicking or scrolling, while also avoiding significant disruption to the primary content.

* We certainly understand the scholar’s desire on occasion to opine about a topic of secondary relevance, but not secondary importance!
** If you absolutely must have more than one note in a paragraph, use two asterisks in the body. Then after the first note, use SHIFT+ENTER to create a “soft return” in order to keep both notes in the next block of text.

Block quotes

Use the quote-type text block for longer quotes. Citations can either come ahead of the quote in the body or behind.

Both alternatives are illustrated together as follows: Robertson (1923, 1380) emphasizes the subjectivity of Aktionsart in the notes to his third edition:

Perhaps a word more should be said as to the point of view of the speaker or writer. The same action can be viewed as punctiliar or linear. The same writer may look at it now one way, now the other. Different writers often vary in the presentation of the same action.

(Robertson 1923, 1380).

Be sure to explicitly click the text alignment button and set the quote as aligned left. If alignment is not explicitly set for block quotes, it defaults to center-aligned. Do not center align block quotes.


It is helpful for page views to have some kind of visual media, particularly a featured image that comes at the topic of an article. This can be as simple as a screen grab of Biblical Language text being discussed or a book cover. Contributors are encouraged to be as creative as they would like.

Greek and Hebrew Examples

Always separate Greek and Hebrew examples from the body text. Translations should always be provided with a “soft return” using SHIFT+ENTER. Ideally, we would want numbered examples, since this is standard for linguistics style sheets. Bullet lists are fine as well, especially if you don’t have a significant number of examples to reference.

  1. ἔδοξα ἐγὼ ὅτι πάρεστιν ἐκπειράζων με, καὶ λέγω αὐτῷ· Σὺ γὰρ τίς εἶ;
    I thought that he had come to tempt me, and I said to him, “Well who are you? (Hermas, Vis. V, 3).
  2. Λάβε, φησίν, καὶ ἀποδώσεις μοι. (4) ἔλαβον ἐγώ
    “Take it,” she said “and return it to me.” I took it (Hermas, Vis. II, i, 3–4).

In order to set the the number for the next group of examples to the correct example number, choose the right number of the “Start Value” box in the left hand side the block menu.

  1. ἔγνων ἐγὼ ἐκ τῶν προτέρων ὁραμάτων ὅτι ἡ Ἐκκλησία ἐστίν
    I knew from the previous visions that she was the Church (Hermas, Vis. IV, ii, 2).

The caveat here is that Hebrew examples with their Right-to-Left orientation cause problems with Arabic numerals. The combination is not supported. Additionally, the translation like is also necessarily forced into RTL format as well. An effective way to solve both these issues is by columns. Create a new block and start typing “columns”. This will open menu with a list of block options. The more of the word “columns” you type the closer it will be to the top of the menu.

Select the two column block pattern. Once selected, you can then set the right justification and left justification separately for both LTR and RTL languages, as well as the type size for each. Place the Hebrew in the right column and the translation in the left column. Since the Hebrew font is smaller, set a custom size of 24pt. Leave the left translation at its default size. Make the left column a list type rather than a paragraph and set the numbering to your current example number. Since each column is now its own block, numbering can be set on the translation column without affecting the Hebrew text’s orientation. This method can also be extended to working with the Hebrew and the Septuagint by setting a three column layout.

  1. Today we know that the Lord is among us, because you have not committed this treachery against the Lord; now you have saved the Israelites from the hand of the Lord.

הַיּ֤וֹם׀ יָדַ֙עְנוּ֙ כִּֽי־בְתוֹכֵ֣נוּ יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־מְעַלְתֶּ֥ם בַּֽיהוָ֖ה הַמַּ֣עַל הַזֶּ֑ה אָ֗ז הִצַּלְתֶּ֛ם אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֥ד יְהוָֽה׃

Works cited vs. bibliography

Depending on the purpose of the article, it may be appropriate to have either a works cited section at the end or a bibliography. The latter is preferred, especially, if the author intended to make additional recommendations for further reading a topic. Conversely, if the author is limited only to sources cited in the body of the article, then “Works cited” is better. As before, it provides added value to readers if cited works also provide links. Like with footnotes, use a “soft return” with SHIFT+ENTER between entries. The following are example references borrowed from the Linguistics Unified Style Sheet, along with the appropriate heading:

Works cited

Blevins, Juliette. 2004. Evolutionary phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Casali, Roderic F. 1998. Predicting ATR activity. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 34(1). 55-68.
Chomsky, Noam. 1986. Knowledge of language. New York: Praeger.
Coetsem, Frans van. 2000. A general and unified theory of the transmission process in language contact. Heidelberg: Winter.
Franks, Steven. 2005. Bulgarian clitics are positioned in the syntax. http://www.cogs.indiana.edu/people/homepages/franks/Bg_clitics_remark_dense.pdf (17 May, 2006.)
Iverson, Gregory K. 1983. Korean /s/. Journal of Phonetics 11. 191-200


Metadata, such as categories and tags, are essential for people using search engines to find our writing.


Categories are fairly formal and help provide structure to the types discussions and writing we create.


Tags are less structured. They should be used to highlight topics of interest, as well as relevant or prominent linguistics or scholars discusses or referenced. Thus, Andrew Keenan’s series on Wittgenstein falls under the category of Philosophy of Language and received the tag Wittgenstein.

Other HTML Style Information

The current theme for Koine-Greek.com is a modified version of Hive. The WordPress sample site for the theme provides additional styling information for a wide variety of formatting issues. Writers are encouraged to read through the information there: Hive Style Guide.