Y2 Hyperbaton: The Data

I’m taking a slightly different approach to blogging about Y2 Hyperbaton (i.e. Noun initial discontinuous phrases) than I have in the past (Discontinuous Syntax in the NT Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV). What follows in this initial post for Part V is a quick survey of the data so that you can see all of the examples I’m examining. This isn’t to say that in the past I haven’t done this kind of extensive survey. I simply haven’t posted it until now.

I’ve included every example in the NT, the majority of examples from the Apostolic Fathers, LXX, and Pseudepigrapha, and some representative examples from Josephus. We’re also only focusing on Adjectives and adjective-like words and not Genitive Modifiers. After the NT, most of the examples of the discontinuous phrase marked in bold for the English translation, though not always.

I don’t expect anyone to actually take the time to read through all of these, but they will make for a handy reference when I post my analysis and comments later.

Y2­ Adjective-like Hyperbaton:

New Testament:

Matt 1:20

τὸ γὰρ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθὲν ἐκ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἁγίου
But as he considered these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.

Matt 4:16

ὁ λαὸς ὁ καθήμενος ἐν σκότει φῶς εἶδεν μέγα
the people dwelling in darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned.”

Matt 12:10

χεῖρα ἔχων ξηράν
And a man was there * with a withered hand. And they asked him, “ • Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?”— so that they might accuse him.

Mark 16:6

Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον
And he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See the place where they laid him.

Mark 16:17

σημεῖα δὲ τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ταῦτα παρακολουθήσει
And these signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues;

Mark 16:17

γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν καιναῖς
And these signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues;

Luke 13:11

πνεῦμα ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας ἔτη δεκαοκτώ
And there was a woman who had had a disabling spirit for eighteen years. • She was bent over and could not fully straighten herself.

Luke 15:7

οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας
Just so, I tell you, • there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.

Luke 15:8

δραχμὰς ἔχουσα δέκα
“Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it?

Luke 19:17

ἐξουσίαν ἔχων ἐπάνω δέκα πόλεων
And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant! Because you have been faithful in a very little, you shall have authority over ten cities.’

John 2:9

οἱ δὲ διάκονοι ᾔδεισαν οἱ ἠντληκότες τὸ ὕδωρ
When the master of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), the master of the feast called the bridegroom

John 6:32

ἀλλʼ ὁ πατήρ μου δίδωσιν ὑμῖν τὸν ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸν ἀληθινόν
Jesus then said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven.

Acts 1:5

ὑμεῖς δὲ ἐν πνεύματι βαπτισθήσεσθε ἁγίῳ οὐ μετὰ πολλὰς ταύτας ἡμέρας
for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.

Acts 4:12

οὐδὲ γὰρ ὄνομά ἐστιν ἕτερον ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν τὸ δεδομένον ἐν ἀνθρώποις ἐν ᾧ δεῖ σωθῆναι ἡμᾶς
And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.”

Acts 13:33

ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῷ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ
this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’

Acts 16:26

ἄφνω δὲ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας
and suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken. And immediately all the doors were opened, and everyone’s bonds were unfastened.

1 Cor 7:12

εἴ τις ἀδελφὸς γυναῖκα ἔχει ἄπιστον
To the rest I say (I, not the Lord) that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he should not divorce her.

1 Cor 16:9

θύρα γάρ μοι ἀνέῳγεν μεγάλη καὶ ἐνεργής
or a wide door • for effective work has opened to me, and there are many adversaries.

1 Tim 3:13

οἱ γὰρ καλῶς διακονήσαντες βαθμὸν ἑαυτοῖς καλὸν περιποιοῦνται καὶ πολλὴν παρρησίαν ἐν πίστει τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

For those who serve well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and also great confidence in the faith that is in Christ Jesus.

1 Tim 6:16

φῶς οἰκῶν ἀπρόσιτον
who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal dominion. Amen.

Heb 12:1

ὄγκον ἀποθέμενοι πάντα καὶ τὴν εὐπερίστατον ἁμαρτίαν
Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, • let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, * and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us,

James 1:2

ὅταν πειρασμοῖς περιπέσητε ποικίλοις
Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds,

James 2:8

εἰ μέντοι νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν κατὰ τὴν γραφήν
If you really fulfill the royal law according to the Scripture, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself,” you are doing well.

James 5:17

Ἠλίας ἄνθρωπος ἦν ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν
Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed fervently * that it might not rain, and for three years and six months it did not rain on the earth.

1 Pet 3:16

συνείδησιν ἔχοντες ἀγαθήν
a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame.

2 Pet 2:14

ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες μεστοὺς μοιχαλίδος καὶ ἀκαταπαύστους ἁμαρτίας
They have eyes full of adultery, insatiable for sin. They entice unsteady souls. They have hearts trained in greed. Accursed children!

1 John 5:13

ὅτι ζωὴν ἔχετε αἰώνιον
I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God that you may know that you have eternal life.

Jude 9

κρίσιν ἐπενεγκεῖν βλασφημίας

But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke you.”

Rev 16:18

καὶ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας
And there were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, and a great earthquake such as there had never been since man was on the earth, so great was that earthquake.


Proverbs 12:19

χείλη ἀληθινὰ κατορθοῖ μαρτυρίαν, μάρτυς δὲ ταχὺς γλῶσσαν ἔχει ἄδικον.
Truthful lips establish witness, but a harried witness has an unjust tongue.

Wisdom of Solomon 16:16

ἀρνούμενοι γάρ σε εἰδέναι ἀσεβεῖς ἐν ἰσχύι βραχίονός σου ἐμαστιγώθησαν ξένοις ὑετοῖς καὶ χαλάζαις καὶ ὄμβροις διωκόμενοι ἀπαραιτήτοις καὶ πυρὶ καταναλισκόμενοι.
for the ungodly, refusing to know you, were flogged by the strength of your arm, pursued by unusual rains and hail and relentless storms, and utterly consumed by fire.

Proverbs 21:14

δόσις λάθριος ἀνατρέπει ὀργάς, δώρων δὲ ὁ φειδόμενος θυμὸν ἐγείρει ἰσχυρόν.
A covert gift topples rage, but the one who sparingly gives awakens fierce anger.

Proverbs 11:25

ψυχὴ εὐλογουμένη πᾶσα ἁπλῆ, ἀνὴρ δὲ θυμώδης οὐκ εὐσχήμων.
Every sincere soul is blessed, but an angry man is not respected.

Proverbs 7:10

ἡ δὲ γυνὴ συναντᾷ αὐτῷ, εἶδος ἔχουσα πορνικόν, ἣ ποιεῖ νέων ἐξίπτασθαι καρδίας
And the woman meeting him, having a harlot-like appearance, which makes the young heart flutter.

Proverbs 26:23

ἀργύριον διδόμενον μετὰ δόλου ὥσπερ ὄστρακον ἡγητέον. χείλη λεῖα καρδίαν καλύπτει λυπηράν.
Money that gives with deceit one must view like earthware: smooth lips conceal a painful heart.

Genesis 29:2

καὶ ὁρᾷ καὶ ἰδοὺ φρέαρ ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ, ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ τρία ποίμνια προβάτων ἀναπαυόμενα ἐπ̓ αὐτοῦ, ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ φρέατος ἐκείνου ἐπότιζον τὰ ποίμνια, λίθος δὲ ἦν μέγας ἐπὶ τῷ στόματι τοῦ φρέατος
As he looked, he saw a well in the field and three flocks of sheep lying there beside it; for out of that well the flocks were watered. But a stone (a large one) was on the mouth of the well.

Psalms of Solomon 17:19

πηγαὶ συνεσχέθησαν αἰώνιοι ἐξ ἀβύσσων ἀπὸ ὀρέων ὑψηλῶν, ὅτι οὐκ ἦν ἐν αὐτοῖς ποιῶν δικαιοσύνην καὶ κρίμα.
Eternal springs were shut up from the depths from the high mountains because there wasn’t one among them doing righteousness and justice.

Ruth 2:8
Οὐκ ἤκουσας, θύγατερ; μὴ πορευθῇς ἐν ἀγρῷ συλλέξαι ἑτέρῳ, καὶ σὺ οὐ πορεύσῃ ἐντεῦθεν, ὧδε κολλήθητι μετὰ τῶν κορασίων μου
Listen closely,daughter. Do not go to gather in another field and you should not go from here. Stay close with my young women.

Apostolic Fathers: [2]

Herm, Sim. VIII, i, 2
Εἱστήκει δὲ ἄγγελος τοῦ κυρίου ἔνδοξος λίαν ὑψηλὸς παρὰ τὴν ἰτέαν, δρέπανον ἔχων μέγα, καὶ ἔκοπτε κλάδους ἀπὸ τῆς ἰτέας, καὶ ἐπεδίδου τῷ λαῷ τῷ σκεπαζομένῳ ὑπὸ τῆς ἰτέας· μικρὰ δὲ ῥαβδία ἐπεδίδου αὐτοῖς, ὡσεὶ πηχυαῖα.
And by the willow there stood an angel of the Lord, glorious and very tall, with a large pruning hook, and he was lopping off branches from the willow and giving them to the people who were in the shade of the willow; he gave them small sticks, about eighteen inches long.

Herm, Sim. VIII, ii, 4
καὶ τοὺς τὰς ῥάβδους ἐπιδεδωκότας χλωρὰς ὡς ἔλαβον ἀπέλυσε, δοὺς αὐτοῖς ἱματισμὸν λευκὸν καὶ σφραγῖδας.
And he sent off those who had returned their sticks green as they had received them, giving them white clothes and seals.

2 Clem 6.9
εἰ δὲ καὶ οἱ τοιοῦτοι δίκαιοι οὐ δύνανται ταῖς ἑαυτῶν δικαιοσύναις ῥύσασθαι τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν,10 ἡμεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ τηρήσωμεν τὸ βάπτισμα ἁγνὸν καὶ ἀμίαντον, ποίᾳ πεποιθήσει εἰσελευσόμεθα εἰς τὸ βασίλειον τοῦ θεοῦ; ἢ τίς ἡμῶν παράκλητος ἔσται, ἐὰν μὴ εὑρεθῶμεν ἔργα ἔχοντες ὅσια καὶ δίκαια;
Now if even such righteous men as these are not able, by means of their own righteous deeds, to save their children, what assurance do we have of entering the kingdom of God if we fail to keep our baptism pure and undefiled? Or who will be our advocate, if we are not found to have holy and righteous works?

1 Clem 14.2
βλάβην γὰρ οὐ τὴν τυχοῦσαν, μᾶλλον δὲ κίνδυνον ὑποίσομεν μέγαν, ἐὰν ῥιψοκινδύνως ἐπιδῶμεν ἑαυτοὺς τοῖς θελήμασιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, οἵτινες ἐξακοντίζουσιν εἰς ἔριν53 καὶ στάσεις εἰς τὸ ἀπαλλοτριῶσαι ἡμᾶς τοῦ καλῶς ἔχοντος.
For we shall bring upon ourselves no ordinary harm, but rather great danger, if we recklessly surrender ourselves to the purposes of men who launch out into strife and dissension in order to alienate us from what is right.

1 Clem 22.2
τίς ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος ὁ θέλων ζωήν, ἀγαπῶν ἡμέρας ἰδεῖν ἀγαθάς
Who is the man who desires life, who loves to see good days?

Ign Pol 7.2
πρέπει, Πολύκαρπε θεομακαριστότατε, συμβούλιον ἀγαγεῖν θεοπρεπέστατον καὶ χειροτονῆσαί τινα ὃν ἀγαπητὸν λίαν ἔχετε καὶ ἄοκνον, ὃς δυνήσεται θεοδρόμος καλεῖσθαι· τοῦτον καταξιῶσαι,203 ἵνα πορευθεὶς εἰς Συρίαν δοξάσῃ ὑμῶν τὴν ἄοκνον ἀγάπην εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ.
It is certainly appropriate, Polycarp (how blessed by God you are!), to convene a council that will be most pleasing to God and to appoint someone whom you consider to be especially dear and resolute, who is qualified to be called God’s courier; commission him to go to Syria, that he may glorify your resolute love, to the glory of God.

Mart Pol 19.1
Τοιαῦτα τὰ κατὰ τὸν μακάριον Πολύκαρπον, ὃς σὺν τοῖς ἀπὸ Φιλαδελφίας δωδέκατος ἐν Σμύρνῃ μαρτυρήσας, μόνος ὑπὸ πάντων μᾶλλον μνημονεύεται, ὥστε καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ λαλεῖσθαι, οὐ μόνον διδάσκαλος γενόμενος ἐπίσημος ἀλλὰ καὶ μάρτυς ἔξοχος, οὗ τὸ μαρτύριον πάντες ἐπιθυμοῦσιν μιμεῖσθαι, κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Χριστοῦ γενόμενον.
Such is the story of the blessed Polycarp. Although he was martyred in Smyrna along with eleven others from Philadelphia, he alone is especially remembered by everyone, so that he is spoken of everywhere, even by pagans. He proved to be not only a distinguished teacher, but also an outstanding martyr, whose martyrdom all desire to imitate, since it was in accord with the pattern of the gospel of Christ.


Wars 4.164
ἀλλὰ περικείμενος τὴν ἀρχιερατικὴν ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὸ τιμιώτατον καλούμενος τῶν σεβασμίων ὀνομάτων, ζῶ καὶ φιλοψυχῶ, μηδ ̓ ὑπὲρ τοὐμοῦ γήρως ὑπομένων εὐκλεῆ θάνατον εἰ δεῖ μὴ μόνος εἰμὶ καὶ καθάπερ ἐν ἐρημίᾳ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ ψυχὴν ἐπιδώσω μόνην ὑπὲρ τοῦ θεοῦ.
But do I, clothed with the vestments of the high priesthood and called by that most venerable name, continue living, and am but too fond of living, and cannot endure to undergo a death which would be the glory of my old age; and if I were the only person concerned, and, as it were, in a desert, I would give up my life, and that alone for God’s sake;

Life 1.346
τῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ πόλεων αἱ μέγισται Σέπφωρις καὶ Τιβεριὰς ἡ σὴ πατρίς, ὦ Ἰοῦστε. ἀλλὰ Σέπφωρις μὲν ἐν τῷ μεσαιτάτῳ τῆς Γαλιλαίας κειμένη καὶ περὶ αὐτὴν κώμας ἔχουσα πολλὰς καί τι καὶ θρασύνεσθαι δυναμένη πρὸς Ῥωμαίους εἴπερ ἠθέλησεν εὐχερῶς, διεγνωκυῖα τῇ πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας ἐμμένειν πίστει κἀμὲ τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν ἐξέκλεισε καὶ στρατεύσασθαί τινα τῶν πολιτῶν Ἰουδαίοις ἐκώλυσεν.
To be sure, the greatest cities of Galilee, O Justus! were Sepphoris, and thy country Tiberias; but Sepphoris, situated in the very midst of Galilee, and having many villages about it, and able with ease to have been bold and troublesome to the Romans, if they had so pleased,—yet did it resolve to continue faithful to those their masters, and at the same time excluded me out of their city, and prohibited all their citizens from joining with the Jews in the war;

Antiquities 4.249
δύο γυναικῶν οὐσῶν τινι, καὶ τῆς μὲν ἑτέρας ἐν τιμῇ σφόδρα καὶ εὐνοίᾳ κειμένης ἢ δι ̓ ἔρωτα καὶ κάλλος ἢ κατ ̓ ἄλλην αἰτίαν, τῆς δ ̓ ἑτέρας ἐν ἐλάττονι μοίρᾳ τυγχανούσης, ἂν ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἀγαπωμένης παῖς γενόμενος νεώτερος ὢν τοῦ ἐκ τῆς ἑτέρας φύντος ἀξιοῖ διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὴν μητέρα τοῦ πατρὸς εὔνοιαν τῶν πρεσβείων τυγχάνειν, ὥστε διπλοῦν τὸ μέρος τῆς πατρῴας οὐσίας ἐκλαμβάνειν, τοῦτο γὰρ ἐν τοῖς νόμοις διεταξάμην, μὴ συγκεχωρήσθω·
If anyone has two wives, and if he greatly respect and be kind to one of them, either out of his affection to her, or for her beauty, or for some other reason while the other is of less esteem with him; and if the son of her that is beloved be the younger youth born than another born of the other wife, but endeavors to obtain the right of primogeniture from his father’s kindness to his mother, and would thereby obtain a double portion of his father’s substance, for that double portion is what I have allotted him in the laws,—let not this be permitted.

Antiquities 10.270
ἀναστάντι δ ̓ αὐτῷ δειχθῆναι κριὸν ἐσήμαινε μέγαν, πολλὰ μὲν ἐκπεφυκότα κέρατα, τελευταῖον δ ̓ αὐτῶν ὑψηλότερον ἔχοντα. ἔπειτ ̓ ἀναβλέψαι μὲν εἰς τὴν δύσιν, θεάσασθαι δὲ τράγον ἀπ ̓ αὐτῆς δι ̓ ἀέρος φερόμενον συρράξαντα τῷ κριῷ καὶ τοῖς κέρασι ῥήξαντα δὶς καταβαλεῖν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ πατῆσαι.
He also related, that when he stood up, he was shown a great ram, with many horns growing out of his head, and that the last was higher than the rest: that after this he looked to the west, and saw a he-goat carried through the air from that quarter; that he rushed upon the ram with violence, and smote him twice with his horns, and overthrew him to the ground, and trampled upon him

Antiquities 6.112
ὑμᾶς τιμωρησώμεθα τῶν τετολμημένων ἀξίως.” ἀσπασάμενος δὲ τὴν φωνὴν ὁ τοῦ Σαούλου παῖς ὡς νίκην αὐτῷ σημαίνουσαν παραυτίκα μὲν ἀνεχώρησαν ἐξ οὗπερ ὤφθησαν τόπου τοῖς πολεμίοις, παραμειψάμενοι δὲ τοῦτον ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν ἧκον ἔρημον οὖσαν τῶν φυλαττόντων διὰ τὴν ὀχυρότητα.
So Saul’s son accepted of that invitation, as what signified to him victory, and he immediately came out of the place whence they were seen by their enemies; so he changed his place, and came to the rock which had none to guard it, because of its own strength;

Wars 6.290
τοῦτο δ ̓ ἡνίκα πρὸ τῆς ἀποστάσεως καὶ τοῦ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον κινήματος ἀθροιζομένου τοῦ λαοῦ πρὸς τὴν τῶν ἀζύμων ἑορτήν, ὀγδόη δ ̓ ἦν Χανθικοῦ μηνός, κατὰ νυκτὸς ἐνάτην ὥραν τοσοῦτο φῶς περιέλαμψε τὸν βωμὸν καὶ τὸν ναόν, ὡς δοκεῖν ἡμέραν εἶναι λαμπράν, καὶ τοῦτο παρέτεινεν ἐφ ̓ ἡμίσειαν ὥραν·
Thus also, before the Jews’ rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicuse [Nisan], and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which light lasted for half an hour


Book of Enoch 10.2
Εἰπὸν αὐτῷ ἐπὶ τῷ ἐμῷ ὀνόματι Κρύψον σεαυτόν, καὶ δήλωσον αὐτῷ τέλος ἐπερχόμενον, ὅτι ἡ γῆ ἀπόλλυται πᾶσα, καὶ κατακλυσμὸς μέλλει γίνεσθαι πάσης τῆς γῆς καὶ ἀπολέσει πάντα ὅσα ἔστʼ ἐν αὐτῇ.
Tell him [Noah] in my name “Hide yourself!” And show him the end that is coming: that the earth will be destroyed, all of it and a deluge is about to come upon all of the earth, and will destroy everything that’s on it.

Testament of Levi 2.9
Μὴ θαύμαζε ἐπὶ τούτοις, ἄλλους γὰρ τέσσαρας οὐρανοὺς ὄψει φαιδροτέρους καὶ ἀσυγκρίτους, ὅτε ἀνέλθῃς ἐκεῖ·
Do not marvel at this, for you will see another heaven more brilliant and incomparable when you ascend there.

[1] All LXX examples used have word orders that are clearly not derived from the Hebrew source text.

[2] Holmes, M. W. (1999). The Apostolic Fathers: Greek texts and English translations (Updated ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, 1999), 451.