Five usage-types for ἐκ and ἀπό

The following is an essay encompassing the analysis and data that we will be presenting in our paper on ἐκ and ἀπό at the Greek Prepositions Workshop at Tyndale house in Cambridge this coming Friday, June 30th. It is a compilation of the short pieces that we have posted over the past week.

Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Cause

We find a strong “experiential correlation” (Tyler and Evans 2003, 32) between actions and the consequences that result from those actions (i.e. cause and effect): Causes are understood to precede their consequences. If one event immediately precedes another, it is only natural to conceive of the former as the cause and the latter as the effect.

Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Time

Temporal constructions shift the landmark and the trajector source expressions out of the physical plane and reconceptualize them as events. The trajector is an event conceived as moving away from the landmark viewed as a temporal reference point. Fundamental to temporal expressions with ἐκ and ἀπό are distance and separation, which are then applied to the temporal plane.

There is a lot of significant work on Ancient Greek that came out in the 19th century. Some of it was by native Greek speakers. The challenge is that during that period, the politics of language in Greece was a source of constant debate and argument. Many times the ancient language was used as a... Continue Reading →

No Tense Outside the Indicative Mood: Origin?

One claim that you'll regularly encounter once you start reading various contemporary works on the Greek Verb from NT scholars is the idea that Georg Curtius (1873 [English: 1883]) was the originator of the idea that Greek does not grammaticalize tense outside the indicative mood. Con Campbell's recent book, Advances in the Study of Greek, is a... Continue Reading →

Iterative usage of aspect in the imperative mood

When we look at aspectual choice in the indicative mood, we find that there are a number of usage-based factors that influence the speaker/writers decision to prefer the imperfective aspect or the perfective aspect. In narrative, the major driver of aspect choice is, of course, grounding (cf. Hopper 1981), but in non-narrative, that becomes less... Continue Reading →

Cristofaro (2008) constructionist approach to complementation

Cristofaro, Sonia (2008). A constructionist approach to complementation: Evidence from Ancient Greek. Linguistics 46.3: 571–606. DOI: 10.1515/LING.2008.019 Cristofaro argues against the notion that the meaning of a sentence with complement clause can be view as arising from the lexical entry of verb of the matrix clause by itself. Rather, complement clauses provide their own contribution... Continue Reading →

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