Reduplicative Futures

If you’ve ever encountered some weird looking forms perhaps tagged as perfects perhaps tagged as something else that have reduplication while also having perfective/aoristic morphology, it’s probably thrown you off.

For example, in Leviticus 13:45, we have:

Καὶ ὁ λεπρός, ἐν ὧ ἐστιν ἡ ἁφή, τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἔστω παραλελυμένα καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ αὐτοῦ ἀκατακάλυπτος, καὶ περὶ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ περιβαλέσθω καὶ ἀκάθαρτος κεκλήσεται,
Then the leprous man on whom is the infection, his garments must be removed and he head uncovered and regarding his mouth, let it be covered. And he shall be called unclean.

Or you have Hosea 11:12/12:1.

Ἐκύκλωσέν με ἐν ψεύδει Εφραιμ καὶ ἐν ἀσεβείαις οἶκος Ισραηλ καὶ Ιουδα. νῦν ἔγνω αὐτοὺς ὁ θεός, καὶ λαὸς ἅγιος κεκλήσεται θεοῦ
Ephraim surrounded with with a lieand the house of Israel and Judah with impiety. Now God has come to know them and they (i.e. οἶκος Ισραηλ καὶ Ιουδα)  will be called God’s holy people.

Or Isaiah 4:1.

καὶ ἐπιλήμψονται ἑπτὰ γυναῖκες ἀνθρώπου ἑνὸς λέγουσαι Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν φαγόμεθα καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια ἡμῶν περιβαλούμεθα, πλὴν τὸ ὄνομα τὸ σὸν κεκλήσθω ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς, ἄφελε τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν ἡμῶν.
And the seven women seized one man saying, “We will eat and we will wear our own clothing. Only let your name be attributed to us! Remove our reproach!

Leonard Palmer provides a possible explanation for the reduplication phenomenon here in his book The Greek Language. In arguing for a desiderative origin of the Greek Future, he makes the following statement (1980, 311):

It is preferable to respect the given facts and retain the explanation that these futures are in fact, like Latin quaeso viso, desideratives. This is supported by the existence of reduplicated futures like δεδεξομαι, going back to an IE type of intensive-desideratives (here with middle inflexions) like Skt. bibhitsa– (bhid-‘ split’),yúyutsa– (yudh-‘ fight’), vivits– (vid-‘ know),’ with the proviso that these have the zero grade of the root. While these futures originally had no connection with the perfect, their reduplicated forms drew them into its orbit, so that futures came to be made from the perfect: κεκλήσομαι, γεγράψεται, etc. The active forms of earlier Attic ἐστήξω, τεθνήξω later give way to the middle ἐστήξομαι, τεθνήξομαι.

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